Cover Picture: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, remains a serious public health problem in many developing countries in the tropics and subtropics and its pathogenesis depends on the parasite-host interaction. Periportal fibrosis of schistosomiasis complicated by portal hypertension results from increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and blood flow through the portal venous system. This leads to portosystemic collateral variceal veins formation which dilates until they finally rupture and bleed due to progressive rising in the portal venous pressure. The clinical impact of esophagogastric varices is critical due to the rebleeding rate of esophageal varices remains high within two years after cessation of acute bleeding from medium or large varices. In the present review, we will discuss hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and oesophagogastric varices pathophysiology and review the current surgical outcomes of distal splenorenal shunt or liver transplantation in schistosomal refractory variceal bleeding.
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